"Open research is research conducted in the spirit of free and open source software. If the research is scientific in nature, it is frequently referred to as open science." -Wikipedia
The Basics of Open Research
Open research is about opening up the processes and the tools of scientific discovery.It may currently take more than a year before scientific results are officially published, and some of the results will never be written up at all. Open research alleviates these problems by directly reporting all of the results while the research is in progress, resulting in faster access to more results. Open research also entails using free and open source research tools, which make it easier for other scientists to replicate experiments, a cornerstone of the scientific method.
This video gives a quick overview of Open Research.